APA Reference Page Examples

When it comes to writing research papers, essays, or any other scholarly work, adhering to a standardized formatting style is essential. The American Psychological Association (APA) style is one of the most widely used formats for academic writing. Among the various elements that make up an APA paper, the reference page is crucial for properly citing sources and giving credit to the authors.


The APA reference list, often referred to as the “References” page, is the final section of your research paper or essay. It lists all the sources you cited or referenced in your work. The purpose of the reference page is to provide readers with the necessary information to locate and verify the sources you used. Properly formatted references not only enhance the credibility of your work but also allow readers to explore the sources for further research.


  1. Center the term “References” at the top of the page, using bold formatting. Do not underline or italicize it.
  2. Ensure that the entire reference page is double-spaced.
  3. Create a hanging indent of 0.5 inches for all references. The first line of each reference should align with the left margin, while the subsequent lines should be indented.
  4. Organize your references in alphabetical order based on the author’s last name. In the case of sources without an author, use the first significant word in the title for sorting.
  5. Italicize book and journal titles, including volume and issue numbers for journals.
  6. Capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title and any subtitles, as well as proper nouns. Keep the remaining words in the title in lowercase.
  7. Whenever available, include the DOI for journal articles and online sources in the reference.



When citing a book in APA format, start with the author’s last name and initials, followed by the publication year in parentheses. Afterward, italicize the book’s title and mention the name of the publisher. This example follows the general APA book citation format.

Example: Author Surname, Initial(s). (Publication Date). Title. Publisher.


Journal article citations in APA style begin with the author’s last name and initials, followed by the publication year in parentheses. Next, provide the article title without italics. The journal title is italicized, and the volume number is in italics followed by the issue number in parentheses. Specify the page range, and if available, include the DOI for online accessibility. This format simplifies the retrieval of academic journal articles.

Example: Author Surname, Initial(s). (Publication Date). Title of the Article. Journal Title, Volume(Issue), Page Range. DOI


To cite a webpage in APA format, begin with the author’s last name and initials (if available). Include the publication date (or retrieval date if the publication date is missing), followed by the italicized title of the webpage followed by website title not in italics and provide the URL. Remember to critically evaluate online sources for credibility.

Example: Author Surname, Initial(s). (Publication Date). Title of Webpage. Title of Website. URL


Newspaper article citations include the author’s last name and initials, followed by the publication date. The article title is not italicized, while the newspaper’s title is italicized. Mention the page range where the article appears.

Example: Author. Author Surname, Initial(s). (Publication Date). Title of the Article: Newspaper Title, Page Range.


Report citations begin with the author’s last name and initials. Include the publication year and specify the report title in italics. If available, add the report number in parentheses and identify the issuing organization. Reports are essential sources in academic and professional contexts, offering detailed information on research findings and assessments.

Example: Author Surname, Initial(s). (Publication Date). Title of the Report. (Report Number). Publisher.


Begin with the author’s handle, introduced by the “@” symbol. Include the specific date of the post in the format “Year, Month Day”. Capture the text, hashtags, emojis, or relevant information within the post. Mention the social media platform where the post is located. Add the post’s URL for direct access to the original content.

Example: Author Handle. (Date of the Post). Content of the Post. Platform. URL


Start with the name of the YouTube channel where the video was originally published.¬† Include the date the video was uploaded to YouTube, following the format “Year, Month Day”. Italicize the title of the video to distinguish it from regular text. Provide the URL of the video, enabling readers to access the source directly.

Example: Channel Name. Date of Upload. Video Title. URL


Interview citations include the interviewee’s last name and initials, the interview date, and specify the interview type. Personal interviews offer valuable insights and should be accurately cited, as they provide first-hand information.

Example: Interviewee Surname, Initial(s). Interview Date. Personal Interviews.


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A well organized and accurate reference page is an essential component of any APA formatted research paper or essay. It not only helps you avoid issues related to plagiarism but also allows readers to access your sources for further research or verification. By following the guidelines and examples. Always double check your citations for accuracy and consult official APA guidelines or your institution’s specific requirements when dealing with sources beyond the scope of this article.

Tomas Elliott (Ph.D.)

Tomas Elliott is an assistant Professor of English at Northeastern University London. His research specialisms include the history of theatre and film, European modernism, world literature, film adaptation, transmedia studies and citation practices. He read English and French Literature at Trinity College, Oxford, before completing a PhD in Comparative Literature and Literary Theory at the University of Pennsylvania.

Learn how to cite in APA